En este blog voy a postear artículos que me hayan resultado interesantes,
ideas que se me ocurran, etc. A modo de corcho virtual, qué mejor que
un blog para hablar de redes sociales.

viernes, 30 de abril de 2010

Redes Sociales (ensayo)

Made by:      Cristina Blazquez,
Maria Guerrero,
Amicie de Quatrebarbes

     1) Abstract……………………………………………………………………. 3

     2) Introduction ………………………………………………………………..3

     3) Social Network analysis …………………………………………………... 4

            a) Social network analysis
            b) Pajek software

      4) Methodology…………………………………………………………………6

      5) Pajek’s results ………………………………………………………………. 9

      6) Social Network ……………………………………………………………...10
                           a) What is social network?
                           b) Different social network

      7) Facebook …………………………………………………………………....12
                        a) a few words about facebook
           b) facebook, inc as a company
           c) employees and revenues
           d)facebook around the world

      8) Conclusions ………………………………………………………………... 14


This work is about social network analysis. We have used the Pajek to interpret the data.
The main objective of this research is to be able to use the Pajek program without problems and to deepen our knowledge of social networking.

The methodology chose is starting from the most global concept to the most specific one (Social network, Facebook, Pajek and Pajek results)

Key words: Social network, Facebook, Pajek, connections, relationship, periphery and core elements.


We are going to describe a topic very popular nowadays: social network that has been a subject of increasing interest in the sciences as well as social sciences recently. Social network is present everywhere and is a part of our life; this is the reason for which we have chosen this very interesting topic.
We are not going to speak only about social network, we are going to study the functioning of the Pajek program in order to analyze and interpret information, also we are going to introduce Facebook, and we have shown some examples of social network with their differences.
 Social network analysis is a method of inquiry that focuses on relationships between subjects such as individuals, organizations or nation states. However, it has also been applied to analysis relationships between objects as diverse as the Internet, scientific papers, organisms. In our case, we focused on the relationships between Maria’s friends.

Social network análisis

a) Social network analysis

A social network analysis is the mapping and measuring of links and relationships between organisations and individuals engaged in networking or collaborative activities.

Social network analysis may reveal:

    - specific expertise or influence

    - how people cooperate, and with whom

    - who is overburdened with requests for assistance

    - Who fails to collaborate at all.

Since it provides both visual and mathematical analyses, it is a very powerful technique for evaluating mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, and inter-company relationships.

There exists a lot of software to analyse the social network, such as Pajek, ORA, Automap, Cfinder, Commetrix, etc.
For our work, we choose the Pajek software.

b) Pajek Software

Pajek start to be developed in November 1996. It’s a program for analysis and visualization of large networks (several thousands or millions of vertices) and its latest version is freely available, for non commercial use.

The main goals of Pajek are:
    - To support abstraction by (recursive) decomposition of a large network into several smaller networks that can be treated further using more sophisticated methods
    - To provide the user with some powerful visualization tools
    - To implement a selection of efficient sub quadratic algorithms for analysis of large networks.

With Pajek we can:
    - Find clusters (components, neighbourhoods of “important” vertices, cores, etc.) in a network
    - Extract vertices that belongs to the same clusters
    - Show them separately, possibly with the parts of the context  (detailed local view)
    - Shrink vertices in clusters and show relations among clusters (global view)

The connectivity:
    - Vertex u is reachable from vertex v if there exists a walk with initial vertex v and terminal vertex u
    - Vertex u is weakly connected with vertex u if there exists a semi walk with v and u as its end-vertices
    - Vertex v is strongly connected with vertex u if they are mutually reachable

[pic] [pic]


For this work, we choose the software Pajek. In order to create a social network analysis, we use the Facebook account of Maria Guerrero.
A very good option offers by Facebook is to compare the friends you have in common. Thanks to that it was very easy to establish a relation between all the friends of Maria.

At the beginning, we use the word program to list all the friends of Maria. Each of them corresponds to a unique number (this is the vertices). We obtained a list of 57 members (including Maria).


The second point is to establish the arcs (connection) between all the vertices (friends). In other words, you need to look for the relationships between a friend of Maria and the friends he/she has in common with her. You’ll repeat this operation for all her friends.
The follow table illustrates it.


The last step with the word program is to write “*edges” at the end.

Third point is to copy the entire word document in the WordPad program. We save it as “text document”


The fourth point is to pass from the WordPad program to the Pajek program. We have open Pajek in order to analysis our data. Pajek’ll create relationships between all Maria’s friends thanks to a chart. So we have to import the WordPad document to Pajek.

The last step is to draw the chart that will create relationship between Maria’s friends.

Pajek Results


Thanks to Pajek, we obtain this chart representing the relationship between individuals.
The people who nearly reach the entire black circle are the core element of this chart, for example: Begoña Aguirrez Ramos, Ana Cuevas Martinez, Maria Eugenia Sierra Pineda, etc.
The persons, who don’t have this black circle, are less connected, for example: Monica Pivirotti, Jesus Mozo, Steve Queen, etc. Less connected means that they have nearly no friends in common with Maria and less relation with the core element (the area in the green rectangle)

The area covered by the green rectangle show the core element. The persons outside this rectangle are called the periphery.

Social Network

a) What is a social network?

A social Network is a social structure made o nodes (which are generally or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of independency, such as values, visions, ideas, financial exchange, friendship, sexual relationships, kinship, dislike, conflict or trade.

Social Networks analysis views social relationships in terms of nodes and ties.

   A. Nodes: are de individual actors within the networks.
   B. Ties: are the relationships between the actors.

The resulting graph-based structures are often very complex. There can be many kinds of ties between de nodes. Research in a number of academic fields has shown that social networks operate on many levels from families up to the level of nations, and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals.

In its simplest form, a social network is a map of all of the relevant ties between the nodes being studied. The network can also be used to determine the social capital of individual actors. These concepts are often displayed in a social network diagram, where nodes are the points and ties are the lines.


b) Different social networks

|  Facebook                          |General.                  |&0000000200000000.000000200,000,000      |          Open      |

|aSmallWorld             |European jet set and social elite                      |&0000000000270000.000000270,000              |
|                        |                                                       |Invite- only                                 |
|                        |                                                       |                                             |

|Badoo       |Popular in Europe               |&0000000013000000.00|        Open to people 18 and older                        |
|            |                                |000013,000,000      |                                                           |
|            |                                |                    |                                                           |

|Tuenti         |Spanish-based university and High School Very Popular in Spain                     |&000000000450|Invite-only  |
|               |                                                                                   |0000.0000004,|             |
|               |                                                                                   |500,000      |             |

|WAYN          |Travel and lifestyle                |&0000000010000000.000|Open to people 18 and older                         |
|              |                                    |00010,000,000        |                                                    |

|  MyChurch                         |Christian Churches                                  |&0000000000144295.0000|Open           |
|                                   |                                                    |00144,295             |               |


a) A few words about the concept Facebook
Facebook is an online social networking directory that connects people with friends and others who work, study and live around them. People use Facebook to keep up with friends, upload an unlimited number of photos, share links and videos, and learn more about the people they meet.
Facebook was created and launched in February 2004 by some students of Harvard (Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes). The site began as a network strictly for Harvard University. Two months later, the site expanded to include other Ivy League schools, Stanford University and Boston area. Little time after, the college network slowly grew until reaching the one million of users at the end of 2004. The website currently has more than 200 million active users worldwide.
Facebook’s growth in the fall of 2007 was staggering. Over 1 million new users signed up every week, 200,000 daily, totaling over 50 million active users. Facebook received 40 billion page views a month. Long gone were the days of Facebook as a social network for college students. 11% of users are over the age of 35, and the fastest growing demographic is users over 30. Facebook has also seen huge growth internationally; 15% of the user base is in Canada. Facebook users’addiction to the site is unparalleled: more than half use the product every single day and users spend an average of 19 minutes a day on Facebook. Facebook is 6th most trafficked site in the US and top photo sharing site with 4.1 billion photos uploaded

Now open to anyone over 13 years old and with a valid email address, the site includes members' pictures, biographies, interests and messages, and members can browse freely through open profiles. Members may choose their personal levels of security to prevent strangers from accessing their personal information.
The platform enables anyone, anywhere, to build complete applications that members can choose to use. Applications range from photo sharing to graffiti walls and everything in between.

b) Facebook, Inc as a company.

The Facebook’s headquarters are distributed between Palo Alto (California) and Dublin (Ireland) where there are international headquarters for Europe, Africa and Middle East.
Facebook is a social utility that helps people communicate more efficiently with their friends, family and coworkers. The company develops technologies that facilitate the sharing of information through the social graph, the digital mapping of people's real-world social connections.

c) revenues and employees

In November of 2008 the firm registered revenues of 300 millions of USD due to its great success on Internet, and the company had at the end of the year a number of 700 employees.

d) Facebook around the world

Facebook is present in a lot of countries and is available in many languages: Afrikaans, Arabic, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Filipino, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Vietnamese and Welsh

e) Advertisement :

The advertisement carried out by Facebook is based on banner advertisement and referral marketing strategy. An important source of promotion was created by the different users that have gone telling about this application to their friends and familiar people.


First of all, we have discovered a new program that only by introducing a set of data; can show us the relationships between items thanks to special graphs. Theses graphs permit us to see clearly the connections between items and the number of them. We have got used to work with Pajek and we have been able to see our progress little by little.

Secondly, we have learned the difficulties of Pajek:
    - It’s a slow process because you need to type all the different items one by one.
    - You have to be careful of not leaving any excess of space, putting the “ ” in the right order.
    - You need to do a correct relation between the items and the numbers (for example, 4    7    1)
    - A small error doesn’t allow us to have access to the ending Pajek graph.

Finally, we have enjoyed learning more about Pajek and Social Network because it is something we are very familiarized with. It’s something very popular nowadays.

Consultado el 1/05/2010

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